HEIC is a file format used for storing both individual images and sequences of images. It came to prominence as the default photo storage format on Apple iPhone devices from iOS 11 onwards (replacing JPG) and macOS High Sierra. Developed by the MPEG group, HEIC files are generally 50% the size of JPEG files, but with higher visual quality. They also allow users to store metadata and image edits alongside the photo, and more than one photo in a file (useful for "Live" photos).
A .heic file is a container, indicating that the stored media is a type of High Efficiency Video Codec (HEVC) file, as defined by the High Efficiency Image File Format (HEIF) specification. Like JPG files, the HEIF specs detail that image data is stored using discrete cosine transform (DCT), which results in lossy compression. However, becuase HEIF supports a larger variety of block sizes for DCT (from 4x4 to 32x32), the resulting compression is more efficient, leading to smaller files sizes. HEIF also supports animations, thumbnails, image edits, sequences, metadata and extra image data such as alpha plane or a depth map.
Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG)
PNG pronounced ping is a format for storing bitmapped (raster) images on computers. It was created originally to replace the GIF file format when it was announced that the companies who created the GIF format wanted royalties. PNG uses indexed colors and lossless compression (like a .GIF file), but without those copyright limitations; it cannot be animated like a GIF image.
PNG is a scan-line graphic format developed as an alternative to GIF, which had a commercial license. It is based on the best features of the predecessor, including lossless compression and transparent background support. The PNG technology ensures the preservation of all stages of editing and the restoration of the step with the preservation of quality. However, it does not allow to save several pictures in one file at once, which limits its use in the development of animated images.
PNG images are in many ways better than .GIF as they also include an 8-bit transparency channel, which allows the colors in the image to fade from opaque to transparent; GIF images only support fully opaque or fully transparent pixels. PNG supports palettes of 24-bit RGB colors, RGB images or greyscale or RGB images. PNG was intended to be able to transfer images on the Internet, not professional graphics, and so does not support other colour spaces (such as CMYK).
The PNG extension was proposed as a tool that helps to transfer and store images on the World Wide Web. The technology is limited to an 8-bit transparency channel, so you can adjust the colors from opaque to transparent. It supports 24-bit RGB colors, matching images and shades of gray. However, as a non-professional format, PNG can not display other color spaces. Most programs allow to open such files, they can also run in any browser. Images are different in small weight with good quality.
PNG Development Group
PNG Development Group (donated to W3C)